As the world’s population is more than 7 billion people, the development of a variety of breeding and pesticides and chemical fertilizers in order to support in a limited vast population resources, the development of production methods has been done. It’s also said its ultimate adds a hand to the gene and seed crops.
Seed can not use only one generation as long as most of the seeds that are now used in the world of farmers called “F1″. And called that there is no stamen among the F1 “male sterility”, referred to as the biological are increasingly unusual seeds.
F1 seeds that continue to increase for the efficiency of food production, on the other hand awareness of our food reliability and safety is growing. How resolve can I to this dilemma. Complained of the dangers of F1 seeds in his book and lectures, “Seed of Noguchi” are spreading the activities to protect the conventional seed shopkeeper, I heard you talk to Isao Noguchi.
Noguchi of seeds Noguchi Seed Institute representative Isao Noguchi
Born in 1944.
Seedling shop to handle the seeds of the country of native species and fixed species of vegetables over the parent-child three generations, management at the Saitama Prefecture Hanno.
I felt the crisis of traditional vegetables disappeared, along with the make a fixed species of Internet mail order, give a lecture around the country.
“In the future the seeds of life,” “seeds is dangerous,” in his book, “How to Grow the seeds of fixed species vegetables” to the co-author and the like.
Before you take over the family business has a history of served as a manga artist Osamu Tezuka’s “Firebird” founder editor in charge.
80% of taste is determined by the seed
In modern agriculture, and it is required to farmers who make a large amount of those of the same standard. And, in order to make the vegetables of street standards must use the seeds of “F1″. Vegetables grown from seeds of “F1 (hybrid first generation)” is, everyone and how the same growth, become a form, such as in a rut, and you can harvest at the same time. In other words, is that easy, selling easy shipping.
On the other hand, is referred to as a “native species” and “fixed species”, the seeds that have been used since ancient times there is a feature in every grain, there is diversity, there are also those that grow slowly if others grow quickly. Or look at the shape of the leaves, while looking at the situation of growth, harvest from those increases. Once you lose the seeds you can long harvest, because it is not possible to ship the amount that was settled in accordance with the demand on a regular basis, it is difficult to to money. But taste is also well suited to the delicious because the home garden as it is a long time ago of vegetables. And, even if grown in how much pesticide-free and organic fertilizers, is 80% to determine the taste seeds, really it has only grown in their own native species if you want to eat the traditional delicious vegetables.
So I have to sell the native species and fixed species as a store of home garden seeds, Are You the people most and individuals to buy. Last in the store to sell the seed, but I was the audience is to grow. Although more than 70% of the people and do a lecture is in their 30s 40s women, certainly question the first to receive become of the question and answer time, “Do I buy Where can such a vegetable?”. So I “can not buy, please grow on their own.” Every time I say that. In fact, the cultivation of fixed species are facing is better to do in Tokyo.
Why do and say and Japan of vegetables are often those of the Brassicaceae, stock, Nappa, it’s easy to cross, such as radish. Self-seed, must be done in a place that was isolated from the mix easy vegetables in order to seed up on their own. Tokyo’ll I do it is easy to seed picking because there is no field, because there is no similar vegetables to buckwheat. To begin with, the recent F1 vegetables not crossing can not be pollen, but I do not contaminate the seed. It can recommend to do the seeds up in Tokyo in the garden or field.
However, F1 vegetables is I need to now the society. The past, 80% of the people of Japan was doing some kind of agriculture. Even your samurai had grown vegetables plowing their fields. It proceeds more and more industrialized, people who grow the food has become less remaining in the rural areas when it comes to the high-growth period. In today’s Japan, it is why 2.15 million hotels (H27 time, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries statistics) is farmers are making the 120 million people of food. So dont if efficiency is not good, anniversary cultivation (1 year it grow) and must be supplied, so I need seeds of F1 is to cover the demand of the society as a whole food.
However, there variety in how to construct of the F1, times and was doing an artificial pollination, or doing it using Brassicaceae of self-incompatibility (the property of not self-pollination), taking advantage of the characteristics with the natural plant for F1 to be made, but am I also did not Nante opposite.
Now, an increasing number of seeds that were made using an unusual strain that does not rapidly have a stamen of “male sterility”, can not be pollen, can not be descendants, have continued to increase that kind of vegetables, and if this is not dangerous He appealed that, I’m concerned about.
There is no stamen unable seed "male sterility"
F1 of the technology using the male sterility is what made in the United States, it has now become the world standard. F1 seeds that were in Japan was originally made from cruciferous vegetables. But cruciferous vegetables I almost no overseas. What to eat Nante greens are Japan, South Korea, about China, I do not eat much in the United States and Europe.
Those that are self-incompatibility of that unique Japanese F1 technology, it’s was good when I was seed this in Japan, gone farmers to the seeds up, an increasing demand of F1, the amount of it just to be produced in Japan was no longer worth the cost.
So I gave the father and mother of the seeds of the species, began to leave the seed mostly overseas. But to create a strain not the pollen to the mother to male sterility is abroad, it began to make the seeds and use it. Japan of seeds it has been changing rapidly in male sterility now. Such as the greens are the main food of Japanese made to male sterility, it that the Japanese eat. So I’m full of now a sense of crisis.
Whether vegetables of male sterility, do not know even a look at what you are side by side in the supermarket, you can see immediately if Sakasere flowers. To try, please try planting radishes and carrots are sold in the supermarket, onion something to the garden. Before long, it will bloom, because you do not have a stamen Looking ahead of the flower may be the magnifying glass. Stamen I have become just the vegetables is not. That I’ve been eating only vegetables that do not leave descendants, we are. It is whether not you dangerous. But nobody do not know such a thing, to know I just seedman, seedman will not say anything like that. So I do not know anyone.
If dead I, if I run out of the store to handle the seeds of this kind of fixed species and native species, disappears anywhere anymore. So I bought the seeds from my place to one of the now, to grow on their own, are you went around saying it me connect to the offspring, and.
Nobody no longer take the seed
Seeds that are sold in one now also has been reduced more and more kind. Because the greens are easy crossing of Japan, it is difficult to self-seed in one place all of the seeds. For example, out, but I’m taking the seeds of turnip, greens of seeds and do the turnip is I do not get. Because it becomes funny to everyone crossing. Or under the greens it is has become a turnip, because the leaves of the turnip is or has become a Chinese cabbage or turned into Komatsuna. So other than the turnip seed I only buy from elsewhere. So I’ve been reduced more and more.
Because people take the seeds were gone, it has been also lost seeds. Since the seeds has become the era of something to buy not ‘s things take. Farmers are now know how to seed picking, only the people of about 80-90 years of age. 50-60 generations of people of the lower generation is troublesome Nante take the seeds, to the cheaper bought than that we believe can vegetables to become a camel and money.
Sowed in September in order to take the seed, it is roughly vegetables in December. Planted again choose good ones from among them, and to take a the seed is July 3 to have flowers blooming in April. A piece of the field it would occupy much of the period. But now agriculture because agriculture of how to efficiently money how to rotate the same field, but I was thinking that too good When I’m a field in more than six months useless thing.
So, “I’d like a seed picking, if I’m hard to take do I do? I do?” From people who have read the book or listen to my story, but I’m being asked well with, and I have nothing that difficult. The plant is not ‘s because they are eaten by human beings, I do because I’m alive to leave their offspring, become everyone seed if Leave her alone.
The old days I such that farmers came everyone that hundreds of millions of people around the world. It is able to F1 seeds from around the late 1950s, farmers in some of that selling easy vegetables can be a good market nice set of form is bought by everyone happy, and tried to take the seeds yourself. Then I had a ancestors back, it has been found that can only ones mess in the next generations. Seeds It ‘s not something to take another from there, it rubbed to buy, it has become a fact. From around 1975 it has become rather than farmers to the picking seeds.
Japan's seeds are made outside of the country?
Seed of major company will not say from their own because there is no need I say, F1 or male sterility or self-incompatibility. Even ask Nante or male sterility or self-incompatibility does not tell absolutely. Most in F1 even of being sold in the JA, and it’s old seed. Then, seeds of today’s F1 has gotten to most overseas seed. Seeds and the value of fixed species of seeds to take in the country of F1 entering from abroad does not change so much. There is also the case that people overseas enters cheap.
Once upon a time overseas seed picking manufacturers, I will take anything If you let me made one acre, had to say please by all means ask is,’ll not Yara taken not to let me made five acres is now, that becoming the thing, it says 5 acres and 2 hectare, the amount of tons and say 2 hectares of seed. If it can be abroad, in the northern hemisphere, such as the United States and Italy have paid off the seeds the same as July around and Japan, it is riding on Yokohama or Kobe, Japan on the ship, bacteria and insects in the harbor of the plant quarantine station of eggs is inspected or does not have, it is why that after coming into the seed companies of Japan.
The law that the old days of the Seed Act, but I had an obligation to display the collection years, so too when seeded by the time overseas seed of seeds coming into Japan, to sell the old seeds for the next season become to become. So the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries and in consultation with leading seed companies, was to display that from the final germination test valid for one year have changed the law. To that end, seed what tons, and came to Japan six months after harvest, store in seed storage of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Ministry has made out a subsidy of hundreds of millions.
On the assumption that do not fall germination rate as long as contained therein, the temperature is 30% humidity at 15 ℃ or less or less, create the optimal environment to save seed. Because they were seeds breathing, and exhausting an increasing number of respiration through midsummer from the rainy season, falls Gakun the germination rate is by the time past the summer. However, humidity temperature does not so much fall germination rate and stored at a constant, even after even after 5 years and 10 years. As long as you are clear-determined standard germination rate of agricultural and fishery certificate, it can be sold at any time as a new seed.
Modern people prefer "no seeds"
Audience of out is if there is a large two peaks, better one from the 70s 80s. And retired the company, because not very much delicious vegetables bought at the supermarket is up to now, to organic farming on their own, very much the old days of taste I began cultivation I want to eat delicious vegetables eaten in a long time ago not to. If you examine the reason, people who came to buy barely aware of the fact that because the seed is different, from the house. A person other is from the 30s of the 40’s, people that are born children, want to grow healthy. People in the age you want to earn between money are not interested at all.
“Delicious” now people are soft and sweet, what is eaten raw. Painful and stiff Nante old radish. Why say and from one single cell is the close and uniform. The place it takes three to four months at a fixed species that it is F1 would be harvested in two months. The fact that the growth in two months, in a limp as cells blisters, cell wall becomes strongly prevent the roots of collapse in order to maintain the cells. So come out those Pechapecha the now of radish in moisture when grated radish, towards the grater is with remaining fiber. It will be something homogeneous and down the old days of the radish. Now of radish Although cooked immediately, the old days of the radish is taking the time and the hot flavor is changed to sweet, it’s different taste at all.
Now the children of hate also there are seeds in tomatoes. It is delicious vegetables that there is no seed. On the grounds that because a child is pleased, has become a male sterility until the tomatoes. Originally plant’m not live to eat the human, alive in order to leave the offspring to make the seeds. It’s became a world like that’s the way the seed.
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Also spread to other than the plant "male sterility"
Company called chlorella industry I was me organized my lecture, but I heard an interesting story from them. Seedless grapes and groove pickled in plant hormone called gibberellin After blooming flower, How can you not be able to seed by causing a hormonal abnormality, it called seed and spraying Chlorella to its seedless grapes is restored. In short, it’s mitochondria have the chlorella to repair so that can make the seeds. Because even male sterility, such those caused by mitochondrial abnormality, when I eat a decent vegetables of strong seed is the power of the mitochondria, I think that might work well in things like human azoospermia, it is still proving How can does not mean was.
In related story, there are bees in the mass mortality of the problem, especially became a problem in the world to the United States. Cause has been said that pesticides with neonicotinoids, but I think that there may be other causes. The place was the case in Japan, carcasses of bee is not pile up around the hives, but bees licked neonicotinoid pesticide, you can imagine that fell and flopping in to return to the hive, in the United States of case It has been said to be “not no disease”, nowhere is dead. Bee was a large amount Nii until yesterday has disappeared from sudden hive.
This is happening from 2006 to 2007, out of the beehive of 2.4 million boxes, which had been kept in the United States, one hive of 3 minutes has become empty. According to the people of biologists beekeeper, that phenomenon similar to this have repeatedly occurred at a time once in 20 years. It will be neonicotinoids made Sumitomo Chemical in the 1990s is not the cause of.
For the first time it happened in the 1960s, considering that for some reason has been made from there 20 years ago, 1940, exactly what year that do the world’s first male sterility, in other words that the mitochondrial abnormality of onion seeds were on sale at that time. To male sterility of the mother, the father with a stamen 3: planting in the 1, to mass-produce the F1 species of male sterility, are you bees are used in the pollination.
The queen bee will live two years, worker bees and Ohachi of all the female does not live only one year. Ohachi for the purpose of just providing a sperm, and instant death to the moment you put the sperm in the queen bee. Male remaining in the hive is, we can not take the bait by yourself, it’s a male bee of “drone” in the lazy. When this flower is no longer approaching winter in the fall, it would have been kicked out of hives from the worker bees of the female. Male bees do not know how to take the honey on their own, to directly sauce death.
Tens of thousands of in the hive when it comes to winter worker bees and the queen bee, become only the female. When the flower is enough February begins to bloom, the honey reconnaissance team of worker bees were first taken went out to the outside in the royal jelly give in the second year of the queen bee. The queen bee is the fallopian tube is open in the stimulus, also begins to lay eggs. So was born the eggs and the next queen, become Ohachi and worker bees.
The fact that bee is gone from 2006 to 2007, because the time to become a spring from winter, the hives became the colony of the only female, it’s such when the long-awaited male bee was born. The fact that occur once every 20 years, referred to in the queen bee and 10 generations. Because of something that has been accumulated in the queen bee in the meantime, 10 th generation of the queen gave birth Ohachi is, I think we were born to become a non-sperm card, if that’s the case, there is no future and the other its hive.
Because bees have stopped evolving 500 million years ago, it has been doing the same thing all the time. But once at a time in 20 years, I do not know what happened, sperm a male that does not have it had been born, is no longer the future of the nest. Bees of the female who lost the identity of leaving the species had flew to somewhere in despair for the future, or not the kind of thing has happened, because it is my hypothesis. But are you talking about such a thing is I know I’m one person in the world
Or human seed is okay?
This is a story that can also occur in humans, but because the number of sperm is there first of statistics in the 1940s, seems to have had human sperm 1cc (ml) per average 150 million during this period. However, now 40 million, yet has continued to decline year by year. If this is the 20 million or less, at a level called azoospermia, it can not be fertilized in nature even if the sexual intercourse.
Azoospermia a malfunction of the mitochondria, the base of the sperm tail and lived mitochondria, any energy to shake any tail mitochondria are making. This sperm is going toward the egg on their own. This momentum, to reach the egg born in the testicles, it and fix to the human scale 100km, is about 100 animals of mitochondria are any much energy running roughly any marathon twice at the base of the tail has generated.
The power of the mitochondria is weakened, it is no longer can also swim sperm. I’ve now of human sperm and Notanota when viewed under a microscope. According to a person with an artificial insemination to choose the sperm of cattle, it is another almost Nante human sperm so is the level that can not be used you were cattle. I think this is I’m not trying to come from food?
Originally animal had determined all in the intestine do not have a brain. So if there is no brain to coelenterates such as jellyfish, the intestines will have its role. I ate the ones to determine in the intestine, passing the important things in the reproductive organs in order to leave to the next generation. Although the human testes and ovaries were also eating is it change I’m wondering what’s not there is cause to mitochondria. The animals with the first eye, creatures such as coelenterates is to eat the phytoplankton, with the first eye by incorporating the gene to feel the light into germ cells. Those who eat I will change the offspring.
In order to leave a seed for the future
As well as the male sterility of the seed, is the seeds of genetically modified had been no doubts about the safety, but this is has become too bad reputation from the consumer, the person in Europe of another gene recombination countries that have accepted the seed has gotten only in Spain.
So it is also huge seed manufacturers such as Monsanto began to withdraw from the gene recombination. Because of the poor countries of the assistance of Africa that it can not be helped even if I make only to seed.
Monsanto is that the newly started recently, “high-speed breeding without reclassified” in science Nikkei, has been featured in the title of WIRED in “full vegetables”. That’s this is the future, the But Monsanto is seeking to advance hard, that make in breeding techniques of whether not you’re made of male sterility. The vegetables of F1 who could do mating mitochondrial abnormal and not make the offspring vegetables referred to as a full vegetables are you concerned that you’re trying to Baramako all over the world.
That the seeds can not be taken, that no stolen seeds. It, such that we can dominate the company’s technology, there is no thing so simple. Because gene recombination can not monopolize the technology because it contains the gene to the pollen. Someone would take If you wanted to take a seed, so now you have tied up in patent. But if the male sterility, because the pollen itself is eliminated, there is no fear that seed is stolen. Even can be a monopoly if you have seeds, you can be killing.
The old days because farmers our hundreds of millions of people in the world was doing everyone seed picking, could not and never say trying to dominate the seed. But seeds when you hear what you buy, can dominate the food of the world if monopolize the seeds become like a giant Monsanto and bigger and bigger by absorbing the seed companies, in other words I can rule the world.
Why do you recommend the self-seed production to the audience but I am also well-seed store, I asked a. If you only make money by selling the seeds, not in this business. If your family just one house to self-seed production is me taking the seeds want to grow healthy, if or seeds around the world are dominated by Monsanto, when it becomes the human race to destruction because of its seed to, any remaining somewhere in the fixed species of seed of the home garden in Japan, can be based on the healthy seed, also increase. It is possible to once again revive the human race. We have continued to seed sales of fixed species and native species for that.
Or leave a seed, "Noah's Ark" is to function?
Such as Bill Gates is now called together with the Norwegian state as the “Seeds for doomsday” If seeds for the purpose of you Ikinuko in the seed if there is such time as the destruction is the human race I made the vault. But it is, the seed that has been frozen at 20 degrees from minus 18 degrees have been carried out on the basis of academic papers that continue to live even 2000 years in 1000 years, it is a gene bank of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries of Japan, wrote the paper.
In the 1980s in the gene bank, this remains concerned about the native species that are around F1 is If you go more of Japan’s male-sterile disappears, to collect and store seed so the seed shop in Japan in cooperation and it’s. Not only where have saved just seeds, it also cedes each prefecture of gardening Experiment Station and breeding organizations, as a material to create a new species, such as the seed companies.
When you get the seed from the storage depot, to return to the slowly at room temperature because kill the seeds of the cells were at once and put out to the outside body of water expansion from minus 18 degrees, us separated by a few grams 5000 yen it. However, I heard from some seed companies, I was put in a dozen varieties hand in an attempt to build a greens of F1 varieties from Tsukuba of gene bank, the buds came out and I was the only one.
Theoretically, I should have lived 2,000 years in 1000 years, but the seeds in about at most 30 years would be dead. In short, life force you have the seeds, is that It ‘s not something to live so long because unstoppable was life metabolism. Because I’m doing in Norway on the basis of the theory, there will be probably a grand waste. According to the website about 500 kinds only in the radish, about roughly one 500 grain, only the quantity of one bag sold at out has not been saved.
The first of the ideal in Tsukuba Gene bank, just plated in Tsukuba of field After standing 10 or 20 years not not you save in one place, it was determined that the update again seed, also to save. Now is subcontractor of organizations seems have an update of the seeds, it is to save dug a hole in the bottom of the glacier when it comes to Norway seed, even as you try to update the seeds of about at most one type 500 grain outside’s a world of ice, I think that it only has been nothing but save waste.
To leave the seeds, we can do
In order to maintain the common price of agricultural crops in the one time of the EU in the countries in the EU, only seeds that have been approved in the country will not be able to buy and sell and distribution, we will need to review and approval of the national government. That’s the United Kingdom in the authorization fee of 700,000 yen per breed, especially now in the situation that punished Once allowed to flow without permission take the seeds in France. Many of the farmers in the crime you have replaced a seed that was self-seed has been imprisoned, but as recently has been relaxed. The reason is, better than new seeds of vegetables that have been approved in the old days of the vegetables were delicious, that variety for distribution is reduced to be a problem on the biodiversity.
In France there is a group to replace the seeds of “Kokopelli” of 4000 to 5000 people scale, can not be freely buying and selling seeds, paying an annual fee to create a membership-based organization, the seeds that are listed in the catalog members mechanism to get free was able. Grown vegetables and self-consumption without distribution, send back the seeds taken also in the meeting. It has been maintaining diversity in such a way.
Things that the plant is do something to continue to change the original. “Change” for life is a serious theme, not continue to live if there is no change even their own Once changed environment. Because of that the plant can not walk on their own, not only live in the roots grew the world. Organ that thinking like hits the nerves and the brain for human beings, the ability to determine the environment that grew up yourself there on the surface of the root, to create a child that fits the land that was rooted, it is bloom , also it will also grew up falling into the same land. It will change in a body to the environment of the land. And also land changes in the self-pollination of plants, it will rapidly changed in accordance with the land. So human beings without even changing the breed, we have the power to will change the plant itself.
I had to work before, of Osamu Tezuka Manga edit inherit a seed store. His theme, works of foundation is life. Life that connects, was to sustain the Earth’s environment and life. The theme of this seed store is also the same. This while it is still the world is a just proceed in the direction in which I think the rich and large enterprises, in order to survive our individual among them, grow the vegetables sowing the seeds on their own, eat it, seed it yourself take a, it has been thought that there is only connect to their children.
Do not do or do it, it is ye of problems. Of which only provide seeds. And seeds I do not want to buy from out again that I bought once, I want you to take properly seeds. I want you to grow the seeds that suits your land. It is the Noguchi of the seeds of business policy.